Any chromosome in a cell that is not an X or Y sex chromosome. The average person has 22 pairs of autosomes (44 autosomes in total) in each cell that define the genetic make-up, or DNA, of the individual. These chromosomes store thousands of genes and they are inherited from the parents. In addition to the 22 pairs of autosomes (44 total), individuals also have one pair (2 total) sex chromosomes (X and Y in a male, and X and X in a female).